Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-01-03 Origin: Site
Human kidneys, liver, and brain produce the chemical l-carnitine. It aids in the metabolism of fat into energy.
L-carnitine is necessary for the functioning of the heart and brain, muscle movement, and numerous other body processes. Acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine are two other chemicals that can be made by the body from L-carnitine. However, it is unclear whether these other carnitines offer the same benefits.
When a person's natural level of L-carnitine is too low, L-carnitine is used to raise it. There is no good scientific evidence to support the use of L-carnitine for heart and blood vessel conditions, severe kidney disease, or many other conditions by some individuals.
To date, a number of studies investigating the efficacy of LC and ALC in increasing female fertility have been conducted in human patients, animal models, and ART settings [5, 22].
Which carnitine is better for treating female infertility, L-carnitineor acetyl L-carnitine?
Despite the fact that there is a minuscule functional difference between LC and ALC, both are utilized in research on reproductive biology to enhance mitochondrial functions for the treatment of infertility [5, 8, 9]. While LC is frequently utilized to enhance the body's capacity to oxidize fat cells, which aids in the production of energy and the burning of fat , ALC is most frequently associated with the enhancement of antioxidant and anti-aging effects. It has been reported that the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism and energy production during oocyte development.
Therefore, in order to maintain its quality in oocytes, it is essential to maintain proper lipid oxidation with or without a minimal production of free radicals . Even though it is well known that both forms of carnitine have antioxidant properties , some reports have suggested that ALC is more effective than LC at preventing ROS-induced oxidative damage . Therefore, studies demonstrating improved lipid metabolism-induced enhancement of oocyte quality, and consequently fertility, tend to use LC, whereas studies focusing on antioxidant defense-mediated improvement of female fertility preferentially utilize ALC. Reproductive biology research also makes use of other acylcarnitines, though to a lesser extent .
Varnagy et al. in 2013 reported the profiling of a number of acylcarnitines in IVF patients' serum and follicular fluids. The LC/acylcarnitine pathway appears to be upregulated in IVF patients with better reproductive potential (higher number of oocytes and/or viable embryos), while the endogenous carnitine pool appears to be reduced, resulting in improved oocyte quality . We will discuss the role of LC and/or ALC supplementation in female fertility in the following sections.
For ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, the amino acid L-carnitineimproves the strength and duration of erections and sexual performance by boosting blood flow to pelvic organs and helping tissue energy generation, bringing major benefits for men’s health. Research suggests that the variant form acetyl-L-carnitine may encourage testosterone production, or make existing testosterone more active, and improve testicular function, all of which also enhance healthy erectile function.
Propionyl-L-carnitine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body: amino acids are the building blocks that form proteins. This particular amino acid is critical to providing fatty acids to the mitochondria in each cell that fuel energy production. There are several types of carnitine but for circulatory benefits, such as are needed for erectile dysfunction (ED), L-carnitine boosts the production of vascular or cellular mediators such as nitric oxide. This results in improved blood flow to the erectile tissues, the corpus cavernosus and corpus spongiosus in the penis, improving the ability to maintain an erection.
We can get small amounts of L-carnitine from our diets by eating meat and fish, but not enough for a therapeutic effect on male sexual functions. Vegetarians and vegans can especially benefit from L-carnitine supplements, as can older adults as carnitine levels in the body decline as men age. Researchers compared L-carnitine with testosterone in men who were experiencing erectile dysfunction, low libido, fatigue, and depression. They found that after six months of treatment, L-carnitine was more effective at improving erections and sexual performance than testosterone, though the hormone helped somewhat. More importantly, testosterone had the problem of causing an increase in prostate volume and size, while L-carnitine did not.
Because it is hygroscopic by nature, L-carnitine has significant hydrating effects on the skin, making it soft, supple, and moisturized even in small amounts.
In point of fact, studies have demonstrated that skin treated with placebo had a mere 12.5% increase in hydration levels, whereas skin treated with L-carnitine had an improved hydration level of 26.4%. [ 3] L-Carnitine improves the cell's capacity to retain skin-produced moisture, which results in moisturizing effects. It ensures that the skin can retain its moisture content and makes it easier for moisture to enter the skin.
This reduces oil production on the skin, which can be beneficial to those with oily skin. Many moisturizing creams and lotions contain L-carnitine because of its significant moisturizing effects.
Results and methods: Up until January 2019, searches were made in online databases. There were 37 eligible RCTs with 2292 participants in total. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced body weight, according to a meta-analysis [Weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.21 kg, 95 percent confidence interval (CI): -1.73, -0.68; P 0.001], BMI (WMD = -0.24 kg/m2, 95 percent CI: -0.37, -0.10; Fat mass (WMD = -2.08 kg, 95 percent CI: -3.44, -0.72; P = 0.003).
Long-chain fatty acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix is made easier by l-carnitine, which reduces oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiac myocyte necrosis. For sustained cellular homeostasis, l-carnitine also regulates calcium influx, endothelial integrity, intracellular enzyme release, and membrane phospholipid content. A metabolic and autosomal recessive disorder with reduced expression of the "organic cation transporter-2" gene, carnitine depletion frequently associates with cardiovascular disease.
L-carnitine also buffers excess acetyl-CoA away from the mitochondria and transports fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation. Due to its influence on lipid metabolism, L-carnitine may therefore be crucial to liver function.
The fact that patients with primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) may present with fatty liver disease may be the result of low intrahepatic and serum levels of L-carnitine, supporting the significance of L-carnitine for liver health. Additionally, patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) may benefit from taking L-carnitine supplements to lower liver fat and the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST).