Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-12-19 Origin: Site
A-amino acid known as serine (symbol Ser or S) is utilized in the biosynthesis of proteins.It is a polar amino acid because it has a side chain with a hydroxymethyl group and an amino group that is in the protonated NH+ 3 form in biological conditions.It also has a carboxyl group that is in the deprotonated COO form in biological conditions.It is an essential amino acid because it can be made in the body under normal physiological conditions. The codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU, and AGC encode it.
The synthesis of phosphatidylserine, which is a component of the membrane of brain cells (also known as neurons), requires the amino acid L-serine.It is possible for it to be produced in the body, including the brain, but maintaining the necessary levels requires an external supply from the diet.L-serine levels in humans do not appear to be associated with dementia or cognitive decline, despite the fact that preclinical studies suggest that L-serine may inhibit inflammation in the brain. L-serine is a naturally occurring amino acid, so taking it in moderation is probably safe.
L-serine's ability to enhance cognitive functions or prevent cognitive decline with age has not been investigated in any clinical studies.There have been no correlations found between L-serine levels and cognitive function.L-serine is fundamental for the amalgamation of lipids called phosphatidylserine that make up the phone film of neurons.It's also necessary for the development of neuronal processes.However, it is unclear if L-serine supplements directly raise brain L-serine levels.L-serine treatment helped protect brain tissue and improve neurological function recovery in a small mammalian study of traumatic brain injury.Human studies have not yet demonstrated these protective effects.L-serine's effects on early-stage Alzheimer's patients are being investigated in a phase 2 clinical trial for dementia patients.There have been a number of studies that have looked at L-serine levels in the cerebral spinal fluid and blood serum of people with Alzheimer's disease. None of these studies have found any clear differences between people with Alzheimer's and healthy people, nor have they found any correlations between L-serine levels and cognitive functions.L-serine levels in the brain of healthy people and Alzheimer's patients were also found to be comparable in postmortem studies.L-serine may benefit people who are exposed to the neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), according to preclinical studies.Our cells may misinterpret BMAA as L-serine and incorporate it incorrectly into proteins, which may increase biological markers of Alzheimer's disease.L-serine may prevent cell death and misincorporation of BMAA, according to laboratory studies . In the absence of these neurotoxins, however, it is unknown whether L-serine affects biological Alzheimer's disease markers.
Serine is a non-essential amino acid that can be obtained from food or made by the body from various metabolites, like glycine. Serine is tracked down in soybeans, nuts (particularly peanuts, almonds, and pecans), eggs, chickpeas, lentils, meat, and fish (particularly shellfish).When a person consumes insufficient amounts of serine, their bodies produce serine.Both ketones and glycine are used in its metabolism, and glycine is also used in its retroconversion.Similarly as with most amino acids, when food is ingested that contains serine,the atom is removed in the small digestive system and consumed into dissemination.It then traverses the blood-brain barrier to reach neurons, where it is metabolized into glycine and a wide variety of other molecules.As a result, these metabolic processes regulate the amount of serine in cells.More serine is converted from various sources if too little is consumed. Only a small amount is converted to glycine when consumed in excess, and the remainder is metabolized into folate and numerous proteins.Since only a small amount of serine is converted into glycine, as is the case with all precursors, supplementation appears to be of little use. It is claimed to be effective in treating a variety of psychological disorder symptoms (especially depression and anxiety) by non-peer reviewed sources, but there is no empirical research to support these claims.Therefore, despite the fact that serine supplementation does not appear to have any significant side effects, it is highly unlikely to have any benefits.As a result, doctors should steer clear of taking serine supplements.
Sphingolipid, phospholipid, and sulphur-containing amino acid synthesis, as well as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and the folate and methionine cycles, are all dependent on L-serine. A hydroxyl side chain of L-serine plays a role in the polarity of proteins and is the primary location where a phosphate group is bound to control how proteins work. Its D-isoform, D-serine, serves a distinct function.L-serine may be used as a therapeutic agent in some diseases and has been shown to have increased requirements in recent studies.As a result of abnormal metabolism of phospholipids and sphingolipids,particularly increased synthesis of deoxysphingolipids, L-serine deficiency is linked to impaired nervous system function.Primary disorders of serine metabolism, diabetic neuropathy, hyperhomocysteinemia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have all been linked to the therapeutic benefits of L-serine.There has been research into how L-serine and its metabolic products, particularly D-serine and phosphatidylserine, can be used to treat kidney problems, injuries to the central nervous system, and a wide range of neurological and psychiatric conditions.It is concluded that L-serine should be considered a "conditionally essential" amino acid, that it is effective in treating disorders associated with its deficiency, and that there are disorders in which humans are unable to synthesize L-serine in sufficient quantities.