Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-08-27 Origin:Site
Pyridine is a heterocyclic compound that is colorless fluid with a chemical formula C5H5N. It is a heterocyclic natural compound, also called Azine or Pyridine.
Much the same as benzene, pyridine structure rings a C5N hexagon. Electron limitation in Pyridine structures reflects in the shorter C–N ring bond (137 pm for the C–N bond in Pyridine versus 139 pm for C–C bond in benzene). In comparison, the carbon-carbon relationships in the pyridine ring have a similar 139 pm length as in benzene.
Pyridine is used as a solvent and is added to ethyl alcohol to make it unfit for drinking. It is converted to such products as sulfapyridine, a drug active against bacterial and viral infections; pyribenzamine and pyrilamine, used as antihistaminic drugs; piperidine, used in rubber processing and as a chemical raw material; and water repellents, bactericides, and herbicides. Compounds not made from pyridine but containing its ring structure include niacin and pyridoxal, both B vitamins; isoniazid, an antitubercular drug; and nicotine and several other nitrogenous plant products.
Pyridine derivatives are widely used in the production of agrochemicals and food additives, and in manufacturing various herbicides, pesticides, and insecticides. The key factors that boost the growth of the global pyridine market include increase in pest control activities and surge in awareness about pyridine among farmers.
Because of the electronegative nitrogen in the pyridine ring, the molecule is relatively electron deficient. It, therefore, enters less readily into electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions than benzene derivatives. Correspondingly pyridine is more prone to nucleophilic substitution, as evidenced by the ease of metalation by strong organometallic bases. The reactivity of pyridine can be distinguished for three chemical groups. With electrophiles, electrophilic substitution takes place where pyridine expresses aromatic properties. With nucleophiles, pyridine reacts at positions 2 and 4 and thus behaves similar to imines and carbonyls. The reaction with many Lewis acids results in the addition to the nitrogen atom of pyridine, which is similar to the reactivity of tertiary amines. The ability of pyridine and its derivatives to oxidize, forming amine oxides (N-oxides), is also a feature of tertiary amines.
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